Friday, May 22, 2020

Current Status of the Electronic Health Records in the...

For years now, the healthcare system in the United States have managed patient’s health records through paper charting, this has since changed for the better with the introduction of an electronic medical record (EMR) system. This type of system has helped healthcare providers, hospitals and other ambulatory institutions extract data from a patient’s chart to help expedite clinical diagnosis and providing necessary care. Although this form of technology shows great promise, studies have shown that this system is just a foundation to the next evolution of health technology. The transformation of EMR to electronic heath record system (EHR) is the ultimate goal of the federal government. Adoption of Meaningful Use in Today’s Healthcare†¦show more content†¦Currently only 4.4% of hospital meet a majority of the fourteen core measures of meaningful use (pg. 122). With such a slow progression to adopt an EHR system, government groups such as CMS have been encouraged by the government to provide financial incentives to providers who adopt the meaningful use requirements via EHR and those who fail to adopt may face penalties like the reduction of Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements (Hebda Czar, 2013, p.281). Benefits to EHR over Paper charting One of the primary reasons that the electronic health system exist is to allow universal access to a health records by all healthcare professionals providing care to a particular patient. In a society with a vastly growing population with increasing comorbidities and demands for sooner diagnoses; the role of the paper charting no longer meets the demands of today’s healthcare system. If for example a patient with a history of Type II diabetes was admitted to the ER, the presence of his records through an EHR system can confirm that is he has had uncontrolled diabetes for some years now and fast interventions can be initiated to provide optimal care. This system provides an updated and accurate snapshot of a patient’s health history, most importantly this type of communication is a key element in emergent situations when a patient finds themselvesShow MoreRelatedThe Current Status Of Electronic Health Record1445 Words   |  6 Pages Electronics has become one huge complex reality. When you turn to your right someone is using a form of electronic device and when you turn to your left something is being controlled by some electronic. In general there are computers in schools, prisons, hospitals and at home. It has become part of our day to day need in our community. In this paper I will discuss the current status of electronic health record (EHR) in United States, what needs to be done to improve EHR status in United States andRead MoreA Brief Note On The National Priorities Partnership1609 Words   |  7 Pagesprinted or written document into an electronic data document and is usually used in data processing systems. Such recognitions requires definite hardware and software tools which can translate the data. [19] PHI - Protected Health Information It is the health information that is contained or transmitted by the covered entity in any form i.e. is maybe paper format or electronic format which can be provided to healthcare provider for identification of the health information either the past historyRead MoreImproving Throughput Using Electronic Prescribing1034 Words   |  5 Pagescommunication between departments will be discussed in detail, in order to improve throughput using the current software system, Epic in this case. The goal is optimal patient outcomes using electronic prescribing. A solution will be reviewed utilizing Epic, a standard electronic health record (EHR) involving the HL7 initiatives. The Problem The problem is fragmented electronic health records (EHRs) that lack communication and availability. Interoperability does not benefit the patient or theRead MoreImplementing Electronic Charts For Patients1398 Words   |  6 PagesThe healthcare environment has grown more complex and continues to evolve every day (McGonigle Mastrian, 2012). For example, we use computers for charting, accessing patient medical records, and for medication administration. The goal of the increasing technology in nursing is to ultimately improve the health of populations and communication between all involved in the care of patients. Technology is constantly changing in nursing and we have to change with it. Technology can have a potentiallyRead MoreThe Electronic Health Records1146 Words   |  5 Pageshealthcare providers with funding for implementing healthcare information technology, electronic health records, protecting patient’s health information, and provides patients with greater access and control over their protected health information. Derived from the Health Insurance Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) that provides funding and incentives for the implementation of electronic health records. Title IV of division B of the ARRA is considered part of the HITECH Act. ItRead MoreIom Report On Err Is Human Essay1355 Words   |  6 Pagesnational and global level. IOM’s report To Err is Human (IOM, 1999), revealed the astronomical number of patient lives lost due to preventable and avoidable patient care errors (IOM, 1999). The IOM report begins with the blunt statement, â€Å"health care in the United States is not as safe as it should be —and can be† (IOM, 1999, p. 1). The report reveals at least 44,000 individuals and as many as 98,000 individuals die in hospitals every year due to preventable medical errors (IOM, 1999). The InstituteRead MoreInformatics Specialty Essay1595 Words   |  7 PagesHealthcare Informatics June 20, 2012 Informatics Specialty Area and Interoperability As the implementation of electronic health records (EHR) progress nationwide, the concepts of interoperability and health information exchange (HIE) must be discussed. The Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (2005, p. 2) define interoperability as â€Å"the ability of health information systems to work together within and across organizational boundaries in order to advance the effective deliveryRead MorePaper1149 Words   |  5 Pagessocioeconomic status and existing health care policies contribute to the variation in care quality. Mosadeghrad (2014) noted that factors affecting health care quality can be evaluated using Donabedian measurement to assess technical quality, interpersonal quality, and amenities. Thomas (2014) stated that eliminating health care disparities and improvement of care quality requires changes in policies and legislation to meet the healthcare needs of the population. The United States and Finland healthcareRead MoreHealth Information Technology : Effect On Patient Care1697 Words   |  7 PagesHealth Information Technology: Effect on Patient Care Introduction The prevalence of health information technology (HIT) has become very popular in the United States. This innovation continues to grow indicating no end and marks the current trend in the healthcare industry and will continue to play a major role in the later future. What impact does technology play on patient Care? According to Cliff, (2012) patient care technology is designed to meet the patients’ personal needs, values and preferencesRead MoreEssay on Evolution of Health Care Information Systems1299 Words   |  6 PagesEvolution of Health Care Information Systems Dimetria Major HCS/533 March 29, 2013 Suzie Mays Evolution of Health Care Information System Health care has come a long way in technology for the past, implementing new technology has made the health care industry grow in size. Major events of health care have paved the way for future technologies influence the physicians, administrators, clinicians, and

Friday, May 8, 2020

The Civil War Essay - 925 Words

nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Civil War was a time when the United States was split in two. In every battle Americans were killing Americans because of sectional conflicts. These were times when people were forgetting the concept of the United States, all the things their fathers and grandfathers had worked so hard for. Lincoln’s speech, The Gettysburg Address, defined, symbolized, and epitomized the spirit of America. Lincoln established equality, found in the Declaration of Independence but not in the Constitution nor in any Federal or State law, as a basic and fundamental concept in America. This is very true since this country was founded on equality but apparently not granted in the Constitution to all. In the time of the Civil†¦show more content†¦When Lincoln became president by one the southern states seceded from the Union. The big question was whether or not the South had the right to secede. It was legal for territories to become states, but it was not state d in any document that states could break away from the United States - because that’s what they are supposed to be, united. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;When writing the Gettysburg Address Lincoln had in mind the equality of all citizens. He felt that winning back the South and abolishing slavery was a tough fight that many had given their life to win. Lincoln expressed this when he said, â€Å"It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who have fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.†(Doc.25 lines 12-14). In the Address, Lincoln also showed his fears of losing the war. â€Å"†¦That these dead shall not have died in vain - that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that the government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.† (Doc. 25 lines 17-20). This also meant that Lincoln thought that if the nation remained divided it could not survive, that the country and unique type of government it had would no longer be in existence. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Declaration of Independence was written to declare the independence of the thirteen colonies from Great Britain. This document, like the GettysburgShow MoreRelatedThe War Of The Civil War921 Words   |  4 PagesThere are no doubts that acts of war can have a negative impact on the individuals involved. There are countless stories of the soldiers’ experiences in the war, and how it affected their lives, families, and attitudes. However, there is a large demographic that is hardly accounted for: children, specifically during the Civil War era. Understanding the children that lived in the time of the Civil War is important because it affected their future careers, shaped their attitudes towards race, and affectedRead MoreCivil War And A Revolution1196 Words   |  5 Pagesthat a civil war is going on there. On the other hand, others argue that it is a revolution against oppression that has been brutally responded to. Evaluating the situation in Syr ia requires solid understanding of specific terms of a civil war and a revolution. Also, is there a general consensus on what a civil war or a revolution is? Can the situation in Syria simply be classified into one of these two? The first important thing to know is that there is no single definition of a civil war that historiansRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War964 Words   |  4 Pageswasn’t one sole cause of the Civil War but there were many events that took the country to war and put brother against brother and states against states. Abraham Lincoln wanted to preserve the union and that could only be attained by civil war. Slavery which was an underlying cause for the war played its role in the division that divided the North against the South. Ultimately the preservation of the union, slavery and the consequences and conflicts leading to the Civil War all rested on President Lincoln’sRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War1522 Words   |  7 PagesCosts The war produced about 1,030,000 casualties, including about 620,000 soldier deaths—two-thirds by disease, and 50,000 civilians. The war accounted for roughly as many American deaths as all American deaths in other U.S. wars combined. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and 18% in the South. Union army dead, amounting to 15% of the over two million who served, was broken down as follows: Notably, their mortality rateRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War1540 Words   |  7 PagesOver the course of the Civil War, approximately three million men (and a handful of women disguised as men) served in the armed forces. By comparison, before the war, the U.S. Army consisted of only about 16,000 soldiers. The mobilization that took place over the four years of the war touched almost every extended family North and South and affected the far reaches of the country that had split in two. By war’s end, approximately 620,000 men had died, an estimate that is currently undergoing scrutinyRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War777 Words   |  4 PagesThe widespread violence that turned into the Civil War began with the election of 1860. Abraham Lincoln won the election of 1860 without a single vote from the states below the Ohio River. South Carolina was the first state to respond to Li ncoln’s election. On December 20, 1680, South Carolina seceded from the Union. South Carolina was the first of the â€Å"Original Seven† who seceded from the Union, including Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. This became known as â€Å"secessionRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War1039 Words   |  5 PagesThe civil war is by far the bloodiest war in American history. In the four deadly years of war, over six-hundred thousand Americans were killed. Many disputes that led to the civil war. These conflicts started under President James Buchanan who was a Democrat elected in the election of 1856. The issue of slavery, states’ rights, the abolitionist movement, the Southern secession, the raid on Harper’s Ferry, the election of Abraham Lincoln all contributed to the start of the civil war. The civil warRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War Essay1444 Words   |  6 PagesThe story of this outlaw originated during the Civil War years, Apr il 12,1861-May 9, 1865. The War were the rich sat and watched, while the poor died. A War that wanted to keep black people as slaves permanently by the South (Confederates). Newton Knight quickly grew unhappy with the situation that the people of Jones County, where he was originally from were in. He also did not approved of slavery at all. Newt was the Outlaw who freed Jones County s people, whites and blacks alike when they mostRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War1284 Words   |  6 PagesEnglish 30 January 2015 The Civil War There are many facts most people generally do not know about the Civil War, so much research is needed to improve one’s knowledge about the Civil War. Authors such as: Robert G. Lambert, Rustle B. Olwell, and Kay A. Chick were all helpful in this research. Many people think that everyone on the Union side of the war believed that blacks should be equal to whites. Most people also think that everyone on the Confederate side of the war believed in slavery. SomeRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War1723 Words   |  7 PagesThe Civil War is by far the bloodiest war in American history. In the four deadly years of war, over six-hundred thousand Americans were killed. Many disputes that led to the civil war. These conflicts started even before the presidency of James Buchanan, who was a Democrat elected in the election of 1856. The issue of slavery, states’ rights, the abolitionist movement, the Southern secession, the raid on Harper’s Ferry, the election of Abraham Linc oln all contributed to the start of the Civil War

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Dupage County Needs Assessment Free Essays

Dupage County needs assessment U OM LTH C A E TUS ENT H A T ESM S S AS ITY N DUPAGE COUNT Y HEALTH DEPARTMENT Everyone, Everywhere, Everyday Community Health Status Assessment DuPage County Health Department 2010 Prepared By Mary Lally, RN, MPH Crystal Reingardt, MPH Peggy Iverson, BS Stacey Hoferka Jensen, MPH, MSIS Elizabeth Barajas, MPH Table of Contents Section 1 Leading Causes of Death . . . We will write a custom essay sample on Dupage County Needs Assessment or any similar topic only for you Order Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Top Ten Leading Causes of Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crude Mortality Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Top Ten Leading Causes of Death by Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Top Five Leading Causes of Death by Age Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Years of Potential Life Lost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . DuPage County Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Birth Statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistics. Mortality Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Immigrant Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unemployment. Unemployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uninsured . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 2-1 2-1 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-13 3-1 3-7 3-8 3-22 3-23 3-24 3-25 3-25 3-28 3-29 4-1 4-1 4-7 4-8 4-12 4-13 4-14 5-1 5-1 5-4 5-7 5-7 5-10 6-1 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-6 Section 2 Section 3 Chronic Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of the Heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cancer. Cancer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stroke. Stroke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthritis. Arthritis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diabetes. Diabetes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asthma. Asthma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EndDisease. End-Stage Renal Disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infecti Infectious Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VaccineVaccine-Preventable Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Infectious Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sexually Transmitted Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tuberculosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rabies . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 4 Section 5 Maternal and Child Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infant Deaths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prenatal Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Factors. Risk Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adolescent Pregnancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity. Physical Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Obesity. Overweight and Obesity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORWARD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 6 Section 7 Environmental Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outdoor Air Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waste. Toxics and Waste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communities. Healthy Homes and Healthy Communities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infrastructure and Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foodborne Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mental Health Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mental Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alzheimer ’s disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substance Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcohol Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tobacco Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illicit Drug Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injury and Violence Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unintentional Unintentional Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accidents. Motor Vehicle Accidents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Falls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drowning. Drowning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deaths. Firearm Related Injuries / Deaths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child Abuse and Neglect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Domestic Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 7-1 7-3 7-4 7-6 7-6 7-8 8-1 8-1 8-3 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-10 8-12 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 9-5 9-6 9-7 9-9 1010-1 1010-1 1010-2 1010-2 1010-4 1010-5 10-5 101010-8 1111-1 11-1 111111-2 1111-4 1111-5 1111-6 1111-6 Section Section 8 Section 9 10 Section 10 Minority Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DuPage County Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DuPage County Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ethnicity. Cause Specific Deaths by Race and Ethnicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Top Five Leading Causes of Death by Race and YPLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor Vehicle Accidents, Homicides, and Suicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maternal and Infant Health Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infectious Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Access to Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preventive Clinical Preventive Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ongoing Sources of Primary Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inadequate Prenatal Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sentinel Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Section 11 Introduction In order to meet State requirements for health department re-certification, Illinois Administrative Code requires that every five years, each Local Health Department must assess the health needs of its community through a systematic process known as the Illinois Project for Local Assessment of Needs (IPLAN). IPLAN is grounded in the core functions of public health and ddresses public health practice standards. One of the required documents of the IPLAN process is a Community Health Status Assessment. The Community Health Status Assessment is intended to answer the question, â€Å"What is the health status of the resid ents of DuPage County? † The results of this assessment will provide the IPLAN Steering Committee with an understanding of the community’s health status and ensure that the IPLAN priorities include specific health status issues. The Community Health Status Assessment is developed through the systematic analysis of health status data from primary and secondary sources. The following DuPage County Health Department Community Health Status Assessment is a compilation of data from these sources. The Institute of Medicine defines a community health profile as a set of health, demographic and socioeconomic indicators which are relevant to most communities. It is intended to provide a broad strategic view of the population’s health status, and the factors that influence health in the community. The IPLAN Steering Committee will use this document to identify and support approximately ten health status issues. Methodology The DuPage County Health Department has created this Community Health Status Assessment to identify specific health needs as part of the IPLAN process. Our intent is to develop an accurate, comprehensive picture of health status of DuPage County residents. Content areas covered focus on physical, mental and environmental health. This assessment will follow a structure similar to the U. S. Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010) document, providing the most current data available, and indicating how DuPage County compares to the HP 2010 target whenever possible. Incidence, prevalence and trends are shown when available. Objectives without HP 2010 targets have been included where appropriate based on public health impact. Direct HP 2010 comparisons were not always available. Finding current, comparative data on specific health objectives consistently remains a challenge. Many data sources have been used in an attempt to provide accurate data for analysis. Data reliability must always be considered, as in some instances, occurrence of morbidity or mortality may be so low that a valid rate or percent cannot be calculated or, if calculated, would be meaningless. These occurrences are noted throughout the document. Data derived in the Community Health Profile is a compilation of many sources. Frequently when discussing national health statistics or trends, direct HP 2010 text was quoted. The IPLAN Data System was a primary source for Illinois and DuPage County specific indicators, as this system contains a wealth of data on births, mortality and chronic illnesses. Illinois Department of Public Health birth and death files were frequently used as a data source, along with sources from specific DuPage County Health Department service areas. Other data and information sources include Access DuPage, American Cancer Society, American Heart Association, American Psychiatric Association, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, DuPage County Environmental Committee, DuPage County Sheriff’s Office, DuPage Federation on Human Services Reform, Family Shelter Services, Illinois Attorney General, Illinois Council Against Handgun Violence, Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Illinois Department of Employment Security, Illinois Department of Public Health, Illinois Department of Transportation, Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Illinois State Board of Education, Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, Kaiser Family Foundation, National Adolescent Health Information Center, National Alliance on Mental Illness, National Cancer Institute, National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute of M ental Health, National Institutes of Health, National Osteoporosis Foundation, National Safety Council, National Stroke Association, Nationally Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Safe Kids USA, SEER*Stat (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results statistical software), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Suicide Prevention Resource Center, The Alan Guttmacher Institute, The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, U. S Census Bureau, U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U. S. Department of Commerce, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, U. S. Department of Justice, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, and World Health Organization. Section 1: Leading Causes of Death and Mortality in DuPage County A good place to begin our study of the health status of the population is by reviewing the leading causes of death in DuPage County residents. Presenting, ranking, and comparing leading causes of death data is a common method of showing mortality statistics, and is useful for illustrating the relative burden of disease-specific mortality. The DuPage County death data presented in this section were obtained from death files provided by the Illinois Department of Public Health. In 2006, there were 5,703 deaths in DuPage County and 102,122 deaths in Illinois (1). Ninety-four percent of DuPage deaths were White, three percent were Asian, and two and one half percent were Black. Three percent of DuPage deaths were Hispanic. Minority Health will be addressed in Section 10 of this Community Health Profile. See Table 1. 1 for a comparison of the 2006 Top Ten Leading Causes of Death in DuPage County and Illinois (2)(3). See Table 1. 2 for the 2004 and 2005 Top Ten Leading Causes of Death in DuPage County (2). Table 1. Top Ten Leading Causes of Death in DuPage County with Illinois Comparison, 2006 DuPage County Rank Cause of Death All Causes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Illinois Number of Deaths 102,122 27,002 24,052 5,974 4,725 4,401 2,792 1 Number of Deaths 5,703 1,419 1,384 347 260 192 183 158 109 107 93 Percent of Deaths 100. 0 2 4. 9 24. 3 6. 1 4. 6 3. 4 3. 2 2. 8 1. 9 1. 8 1. 6 Percent of Deaths 100. 0 26 24 6 5 4 3 1 Diseases of the Heart Cancer Cerebrovascular Disease Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Accidents Alzheimer’s Disease Pneumonia Diabetes Mellitus Nephritis and Nephrosis Septicemia 2,794 2,501 2,001 3 2 2 Pneumonia is not in the top ten leading causes of death in Illinois Source: Illinois Department of Public Health (2) (3) 1-1 Table 1. Top Ten Leading Causes of Death, DuPage County, 2004-2005 2004 Percent of 2005 DuPage Total DuPage Deaths Deaths Deaths All Causes 5,444 100. 0 5,761 Diseases of the Heart 1,326 24. 4 1,455 Cancer 1,395 25. 6 1,440 Cerebrovascular Disease 385 7. 1 388 Chronic Lower Respiratory 252 4. 6 274 Disease Accidents 208 3. 8 181 Pneumonia 137 2. 5 177 Alzheimer’s Disease 166 3. 0 179 Nephritis and Nephrosis 116 2. 1 138 Diabetes Mellitus 119 2. 2 116 Septicemia 102 1. 9 89 Source: Illinois Department of Public Health (2) Percent of Total Deaths 100. 0 25. 3 25. 0 6. 7 4. 8 3. 1 3. 1 3. 1 2. 4 2. 0 1. 5 Since 1908, Diseases of the Heart has been the first or second leading cause of death in the United States (4). Since 1921, Diseases of the Heart has remained the number one cause of death (4). While DuPage County historical mortality data dating back to 1921 is unavailable, one can extrapolate national patterns to County mortality. The increase in 2004 total Cancer can be seen as an anomaly. The transposition between Diseases of the Heart and Cancer in 2004 should be monitored. Crude Mortality Rate Table 1. 3 Crude Mortality Rate, DuPage County and Illinois, 2000-2006 Year DuPage County Illinois 2000 617. 1 855. 8 2001 620. 6 840. 1 2002 616. 1 842. 9 2003 615. 6 829. 2 2004 586. 3 805. 0 2005 618. 0 812. 1 2006 611. 3 795. 8 Source: Illinois Department of Public Health (2) 1-2 Crude Mortality Rate in DuPage County and Illinois 2000 – 2006 Rate per 100,000 Population 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Illinois 2005 2006 Year DuPage County Graph 1. 1 Source: Illinois Department of Public Health (2) As can be seen from Graph 1. 1, between 2000 and 2006 the DuPage County and Illinois mortality rates remained relatively stable. The DuPage County crude death rate ranges from 586 deaths per 100,000 population to 620 deaths per 100,000 population. The Illinois mortality rate is higher and has a greater range than DuPage County. It ranges from 796 deaths per 100,000 population to 843 deaths per 100,000 population (2). Top Ten Leading Causes of Death by Gender Table 1. DuPage County Leading Causes of Death, All Ages by Gender, 2006 Male Female Rank Cause Number Rank Cause 1 Cancer 681 1 Heart Disease 2 Heart Disease 661 2 Cancer 3 Accidents 130 3 Cerebrovascular Disease (CVD) 4 Cerebrovascular Disease 128 4 Chronic Obstructive (CVD) Pulmonary Di sease (COPD) 5 Chronic Obstructive 99 5 Alzheimer Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 6 Pneumonitis 81 6 Pneumonitis 7 Diabetes 51 7 Accidents 8 Nephritis 47 8 Nephritis 9 Alzheimer 44 9 Diabetes 10 Septicemia 43 10 Septicemia Source: Illinois Department of Public Health (2) Number 758 703 219 161 139 77 62 60 58 50 1-3 Gender Differences The 2006 top ten leading causes of death are the same for oth males and females, though the ranking of causes varies by gender. The first and second cause of death for males is Cancer, followed by Heart Disease. This order is reversed for females. Accidents (Unintentional Injuries) are the third leading cause of death for males, but the seventh leading cause for women. This category includes motor vehicle accidents and any other unintentional injury death that occurs as a result of a fall, drowning, firearm or other accidental cause. In DuPage County, the number of male Accident deaths is more than twice the number of female Accident deaths, which is attribut ed primarily to higher numbers of male motor vehicle deaths. This discrepancy between male and female accident deaths is a trend that is also seen nationally (5). CVD and COPD are the fourth and fifth leading causes for males, but the third and fourth causes for women. Alzheimer’s disease is the fifth leading cause for women, but the ninth cause for men. Pneumonitis is the sixth leading cause of death for both males and females. Diabetes was the ninth leading cause of death for females and the seventh in males. Nephritis was the eighth leading cause of death in both females and males and Septicemia was the tenth leading cause of death for both genders. Top Five Leading Causes of Death by Age Groups Table 1. 5 Five Leading Causes of Death by Age Group in DuPage County, 2006 Rank How to cite Dupage County Needs Assessment, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

The Relationship Between Language and Content in Poetry Essay Example

The Relationship Between Language and Content in Poetry Essay Many tallented poets describe words as tools of verbal language used to build an image in peoples mind and to move an emotion or win a certain cause. David Waggoners Their Bodies, Langston Hughes Share-Croppers, and Ruth Collins The Song of the Factory Worker is three particular poems that were analyzed in comparison styles and the deliverance of words. The three poems have certain features in common. The features between the three poems relates to ethnicity, gender, age, labor and the relationship between lifes trials. The author Ruth Collins analyzes the obstacles women faced working in a factory. The Red brick building with many windows is an analogy to jail or prison walls. For example, prison walls or jail walls are built with bricks. Youre like a vampire, for wherever I go, you know Im coming back to you is an analogy of every route prisoners take in the prison system reverts back to bricks with no chance to escape. This particular poem describes the tremendous sounds that exist in the factory. Some sounds were The whir, whir of the machinery and The click of the tacker. However, the most interested line in the poem that stuck in the mind of the reader was the tired-eyed ones. This particular line is an example of every person having a long, tiresome, and busy day on the job. For example, if Bradley Jordan has a great deal of work orders to complete at work, the characteristics of his physical appearance at the end of the day is slow walking and tired-eyes. The reader most memorable line was the red-haired girl, when the sun sets her head aflame. This line describes the characteristics of a particular woman, working in a factory, maintaining her beauty. We will write a custom essay sample on The Relationship Between Language and Content in Poetry specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Relationship Between Language and Content in Poetry specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Relationship Between Language and Content in Poetry specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The female factory worker will sew until she becomes a tired eyed one. In Langston Hughess poem, he delivers a much more angry approach. In the beginning of the poem, he states Just a herd of Negroes Driven to the field. This particular line describes Negroes as silent farm animals, like oxens or donkeys. They were required to go and work in the cotton field without any recognition of intelligence or individual worth. Langston Hughes openly expresses his opinion in this poem. The reason behind the abuse was the skin color. Hughes is clearly angry and upset because of the slavery with African American workers. The abuse had no clear beginning and the end will not be merciful. David Wagoners poem, Their Bodies, is a great and bittersweet piece of work. Wagoner use of metaphors dissected subjects and expressed dignity for the individual. He also made mention to the reader that each procedure was innocent or once a parent. David explains that bodies should be handled truly and politely. The three poems reminded the readers through metaphors that an individuals value is particularly not determined by age, sex, or race. Why the individuals in these particular poems fight back against the agony, pain, and suffocation? In the poem The Song of the Factory Worker, Collins described the red brick building as a bad drug habit. The individuals want to leave, but they are brought back because of their happy bondage, the happy laughter and the songs they sing. This description is just like drug addict wanting to quit drugs. Individuals using drugs want to quit, but the bondage of a feel good high keeps them coming back. Langston Hughes expresses a great deal of anger toward repression and racism. He is an African American writer, who is angry with himself and his brothers. Hughes does not describe attractive elements of a woman or beautiful colors in a butterfly. Year by year goes by and we are nothing more, the reader could visualize the Negroes pains and understand why they thought there was not any hope. The sweet and settle poem was the Their Bodies. This particular poem rebels against individuals that acquire knowledge from experience. The body is a dynamic vessel that has a name, past, and family. The old man is described as scars of steel-mill on the backs of his hands, on the nape of his neck, on his arms and sinewy legs. Assuming that this is not a spiritual work of Jesus, the dead body is a miracle. The readers are reminded to their best to learn truly and politely. The three poems are written with fantastic, superb, and great metaphoric language. Although the positions are different, the plot of each poem relates working. Whether white or black, old or young, female or male, the poems display dignity for individuals.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Problems with Euthanasia essays

Problems with Euthanasia essays FINAL ESSAY: 3 TEAM: 2 Esther Quintana Martà ­nez de Iturrate 27-12-03 PROBLEMS WITH EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE Euthanasia is one of the most debatable issues worldwide nowadays, the debate is so controversial and the opposing viewpoints are so many that the term is hard to define. If we go back to the origin of the word we find that it comes from the two Greek words: eu and thanatos which mean easy death. According to the Collins English Dictionary the definition of the term is: The act of killing someone painlessly, especially to relieve suffering from an incurable illness. Also called mercy killing. Euthanasia and assisted suicide are exchangeable terms that have been used in many countries such as Holland, Switzeland and New Zealand to pass legislation in order to provide some kind of psycological or physical benefit for terminal or incurable patients and their families. The reasons that push people to end their life vary, one of the most common reasons is to end the pain of the person (physical or psychological), another common reason is to guarantee a dignified death and to have contr ol over the process. The issue involves the decisions of the patients and the doctors as well as of the families. Sometimes these decisions are hard, especially when the patients are not able to decide by themselves. In this case, doctors and family have to decide for them, and this is the point where they have to face economic, legal and personal factors which can put a lot pressure on the decision to be made. While advocates of assisted suicide suggest that this would provide people with autonomy and personal control, the opponents would disagree saying that people with illnesses and disabilities would have these decisons made for them and imposed on them. In this essay I am going to discuss these factors and the problems with assisted suicide and I am going to argue that in my view, euthanasia sho...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

What Is the New SAT Like Student Reactions to the Test

What Is the New SAT Like Student Reactions to the Test SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The newly redesigned 2016 SAT debuted on March 5th. If you haven't taken it yet, you may be wondering what to expect: What is the New SAT like? What did students think of the exam? Was it easier or harder than the old SAT? How did it compare to the ACT? In this article, I’ll discuss the reactions to the new SAT and talk about what it means for you. How Is the New SAT Different? If you’re already familiar with what changes were made to the SAT, feel free to skip this section. If you’re completely unfamiliar with the changes, I highly recommend reading our full in-depth analysis of the changesbefore continuing this article. I’ll describe the new major changes in brief.The new SAT has a 400-1600 scoring scale, instead of the 800-2400 scale.There are two sections (graded from 200-800) instead of three: Math and Evidence-Based Reading and Writing.The Essay is now optional and no longer counts towards your over 400-1600 score but instead receives its own score.There is no longer a penalty for guessing which means answering a question incorrectly or skipping the question will result in the same score. The Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Section is composed of two parts: the Writing Test and the Reading test.Also, the Reading no longer has vocabulary sentence-completion questions and instead consists of five passages: one passage in US and World Literature, two passages in History/Social Studies, and two passages in Science.The Writing test no longer asks individual sentence questions but instead asks questions related to 4 passages.In the Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Section, you’ll need to be able to read graphs, tables, and other scientific data to answer certain questions. The Math Section is divided into two parts: non-calculator test and calculator test.There has also been a content shift: focus on algebra, decreased focus on geometry, the addition of a few trigonometry and imaginary number questions. What Is the New SAT Like? Survey Results The College Board conducted a survey of 8,089 students who sat for the March 5th new SAT.However, the College Board didn't publish the results of the entire survey. They simply chose the data they wanted to publish on their site.Therefore, I’d recommend you view the findings cautiously since the College Board has a lot to gain by saying the new exam is better than the old. According to the College Board’s survey, 71% of students said the new SAT reflected what they’re learning in high school. By a 6 to 1 margin, students said they preferred the new SAT over the old SAT. 75% of students said the Reading Test was the same as or easier than they expected. 59% of students said the Math section tests the skills and knowledge needed for success in college and career. From the survey results, we can see that students heavily prefer the new SAT to old SAT, which makes me think this new test is a lot easier than the old test.The majority of students seem to have thought the Reading Test was easy, which aligns with the student reactions(which I'll discuss below). For the Math section, the College Board didn’t say how students felt about it, but rather shared that 59% of students felt the Math section tested important skills (which is not very helpful for us to know).The absence of a statistic about how students felt about the Math section makes me wonder if students thought the math was extremely difficult. If the Math section is more difficult, that would align with the student reactions (which I show below) and would be bad for the College Board since their goal in creating the new test was to create a test that more accurately reflected what students learned in school and matched up to that difficulty but did not exceed it. Kaplan also conducted a survey; however, they only surveyed 521 studentswho sat for the March 5th new SAT, so it was a much smaller sample size than that of the College Board (8,089). Like the College Board,Kaplandidn't publish the results of the entire survey. Instead, they chose the data they wanted to publish on their site.I’d recommend you view the findings of this survey cautiously since Kaplanhas a lot to gain by saying the new exam is challenging to draw more students to their prep program. According to Kaplan's survey, 16%of students responded that the new SAT â€Å"very much†reflected what they’re learning in high schoolwhile 56% responded â€Å"somewhat,† 23%responded â€Å"not too much,† and 5% responded â€Å"not at all.† 59% of students said thequestions were straightforward and easy to follow though 58% also said they found the length of the sections tiring. 48% of students said the test was about as difficult as they expected, 30%thought it wasmore difficult than expected, and 22% thought it wasless difficult than expected. 41% of students found the Math section more difficult than expected.56% of students said they felt comfortable doing math without a calculator. If you group the "very much" and "somewhat" responses, about 72% of students felt the test reflected what they're learning in school, which matches up with the 71% of students in the College Board survey. Otherwise, the Kaplan results vary from the College Board results because the questions students were asked in each survey was different. The results of Kaplan's survey seem pretty non-conclusive. Most of the percents are around 40-50% which means about half of students felt the opposite: 59% of students found the test straightforward, but that means 41% didn't find the test straightforward. 58% of students found the length of the sections tiring, but that means 42% didn't find the length tiring. For the Evidence-Based Reading and Writing section, Kaplan didn't provide any survey results.The absence of a statistic about how students felt about this section makes me wonder if students thought thesection was relatively easy. If theEvidence-Based Reading and Writingsection is not very difficult, that would align with the student reactions (which I show below) and wouldn't be greatfor Kaplanto advertise since they want students to buy their SAT prep materials. What did the students really think? Student Reactions to the New SAT For those who took the first session of the new SAT on March 5th, how did they feel? Here are some reactions from students on Twitter andthe College Board survey: Math Section Reactions @CollegeBoard need more time on no calculator part. I'm fast at math, but not that fast. - Serena (@cheeselover012) March 5, 2016 @CollegeBoard there was not enough time for the math portion. Especially the first section!! 25 minutes is wayyyy too short😒 - Delaney Schindler (@Laney_Schindler) March 6, 2016 @CollegeBoard You can't expect me or any math wizard to finish the math sections so fast. No one in my class finished it completely! - Tyler Iacona (@tyleriacona) March 5, 2016 @CollegeBoard the no calculator portion of the math portion, as many other people have also testified to, was nearly impossible to finish. - chlà ¸e (@pointe314) March 5, 2016 @CollegeBoard absolutely no way for me to finish the no calculator section that's saying a lot seeing as I can finish the ACT math section - Sabrina (@sabrinaelena98) March 5, 2016 Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Section Reactions @CollegeBoard I absolutely ADORED the articles in the Reading section. There were some really scrumptious pieces - especially in science. - Lucia Stark (@LuciaStark8) March 5, 2016 â€Å"I felt like I had a good amount of time to completely read through the passages and select my answers as well as review some of the ones that were difficult for me.† –Elizabeth, 17, WA Overall New SAT Reactions @CollegeBoard pros: writing section was less arcanecon: it's not possible to complete that 25 min math section in 25 min - Fassih Sherazi (@fxuzzy) March 5, 2016 @CollegeBoard Pro- similar to the ACT making it easier to study strategies for both together. - Elizabeth Yousey (@YouseyElizabeth) March 5, 2016 What Does This Mean for You? I’m going to base my advice here off of both student reactions and the College Board Kaplan survey results.However, my advice is more heavily swayed by the student reactions since I think their reactions are more honest and insightful than the survey results. Math Section: Practice Practice Practice Students felt the Math section was very challenging (if not impossible) to finish. Some thought it was more challenging than the ACT Math section which is notoriously hard to finish. This means you must must must drill the pacing of the SAT Math section.Take advantage of every free new SAT Math question available, and practice each one with the accurate timing. Obey the rules of the new SAT Math sections: only use your calculator on the calculator section.Many students struggled on the no calculator Math section.You need to drill your mental math.It’s likely a skill you don’t often use since most high school math classes allow you to use your calculator.Work your mental math muscles.Practice multiplication and finding square roots without a calculator.These are two of the biggest mental math struggles for students. Make sure you know every single concept that is tested on the new SAT Math section.Review the math topics in depth.Practice thehardest SAT math questions. You don't want any confusion on test day! Evidence-Based Reading and Writing: Still Practice In general, students seemed to think the Reading and Writing tests were easier. However,we don't have any data on how students actually did yet just because the reading/writing felt easier doesn't mean it actually was.Students commented that the new SAT passages were more interesting than the often very boring old SAT reading passages.Also, students felt they had enough time to answer all questions related to the passages. While the Evidence-Based Reading and Writing section may have seemed easier to students, you still need to prepare for it.You’ll definitely want to get in practice tests while keeping accurate timingto make sure you'll be able to finish the sections. If you're notreaching your target scorefor theEvidence-Based Reading and Writing section on your practice tests, you should check out some of our in-depth strategy guides for the SAT Reading test and the SAT Writing test. Overall New SAT Study Advice Based on the student reactions and survey results, I’d recommend you spend 60% of your SAT study prep on Math and 40% of your SAT study prep on the Reading and Writing tests. On the new SAT, your math score counts for 50% of your composite score (when it used to only be â…“ of your composite).Since the Math is so challenging, you need to put greater emphasis on it.You want to know every concept and be able to answer as many questions as possible in the time allotted. Reading and Writing combined count for 50% of your composite score (when each individually used to count for â…” of your composite).You still want to do well on these sections since they count for 50% of your composite score.Take all the practice tests currently available.Read our study tips, but prioritize Math! What’s Next? Need help with your college application? Learn about how to write a personal statement, how to write about your extracurriculars, and what great letters of recommendationlook like. Interested in attending a top college? Learn about how to get into Harvardand how to get into Stanford. Still prepping for the SAT? Here is the ultimate SAT study guide. If you’re taking the SAT soon, I’d recommend you check out our guide to cramming for the SAT. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points?We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Management research method Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Management research method - Assignment Example research topic â€Å"An exploratory investigation of the potential relationship between student learning styles, course grade, cumulative grade point average and selected demographics in on-line undergraduate business courses† is a well-structured and articulate topic, which is relevant to the current learning needs globally. With the current educational trend, online learning has become on the rise hence it would be viable to determine the effectiveness of online learning through a comparison to the traditional teaching method especially in relation to the business courses. The research was designed based on three critical hypothesis that were meant to be tested at the end of the research. Basing on the assumption that there is a significant effect of the learning style on the student achievement; in relation to the online versus the enrolled on-fine courses as well as there is a significant relationship between the learning style, age, gender and ethnicity of the students. The hypothesis used in designing the research is significant as it helps to validate the research topic making the testing of hypothesis the ultimate benchmark for research outcome. In the conduction of the research, data was collected through the use of a WebCT courseware to collect information from all the online courses examined in the study, while the learning style survey for college (LSSC) was employed to collect data for determining learning style of the college students. LSSC employed the use of 32 questions in the questionnaire to assess the learning style preferred by the students with a student data form used to collect the learning style, as well as other demographic information. The final grade for the semester was then used as a tool for assessment of the effectiveness of the various learning styles preferred by the students. Seventy-two participants were then sampled to represent the entire group of the learners thus providing the research with a good sample size that would